Glossary of terms

3D Sensing A depth sensing technology that augments camera capabilities for facial and object recognition in a variety of applications.

5G In telecommunications, 5G or fifth-generation of mobile telecommunications technology, that supports faster data rates, higher connection density, and much lower latency.

6G In telecommunications, 6G is the sixth generation standard currently under development for wireless communications technologies supporting cellular data networks. It is the planned successor to 5G and will likely be significantly faster.

Artificial intelligence (AI) A simulation of human intelligence in machines, including machines which are programmed to mimic human action or exhibit humanistic traits such as learning or problem-solving.

Augmented Reality (AR) A technology that superimposes a computer- generated image on a user’s view of the real world to provide a composite view.

Back-end The set of process steps that follows the front-end, including packaging and device testing that complete semiconductor manufacturing.

Carbon neutrality Achieving net-zero carbon dioxide emissions. This can be done by balancing emissions of carbon dioxide with its removal or by eliminating emissions from society. 

Compound semiconductor A semiconductor formed from more than one element, typically comprising a mixture of elements from the Periodic Table.

Cleanroom(s) An enclosed area strictly controlled for airborne contamination, humidity, and temperature to be suitable for semiconductor manufacturing processes.

Data centres Physical facility where open data can be stored and processed.

Deposition The process of depositing a thin layer of insulating or conductive material onto a substrate.

Distributed FeedBack (DFB) an active device with an active layer and cavity structure to promote lasing, which uses a periodic grating to select specific mode (frequency of emitted light).

Die(s) (or Dice) A single semiconductor chip on a wafer that contains an entire integrated circuit but has not yet been packaged. Many hundreds of identical dies are fabricated on each wafer.

Dicing The process of cutting a semiconductor wafer into single chips, with each containing its own complete semiconductor device.

Etch The process of selectively removing material to create desired features and patterns of a semiconductor wafer.

Fab (short for "Fabrication") The physical facility that manufactures semiconductor products.

Fabless A semiconductor manufacturer that does not have an in-house wafer processing capability and contracts the wafer fabrication process out to a third-party manufacturer, often described as a wafer foundry.

Foundry A wafer fabrication facility that manufactures another company's semiconductor products as a service.

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) A compound semiconductor material made from gallium (chemical symbol Ga) and arsenide (chemical symbol As) which operaters at high frequency.

Gallium nitride (GaN) A compound semiconductor material made from gallium (chemical symbol Ga) and nitrogen (chemical symbol N) with high efficiency and power density.

Indium Phosphide (InP) A compound semiconductor material made from Indium (chemical symbol In) and Phosphide (chemical symbol P) used in high power, high frequency applications and in laser diodes.

Integrated circuit A combination of electronic devices integrated onto a single substrate or chip.

Internet of Things (or IoT) The interconnection via the internet of computing devices embedded in everyday objects, enabling them to send and receive data.   

LiDAR Detection system which works on the principle of radar but uses light from a laser. 

Metaverse A virtual-reality space in which users can interact with a computer-generated environment and other users.

Moore's Law The observation made by Gordon Moore that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit (IC) doubles about every two years.

Net Zero Achieving a balance between the amount of greenhouse gas emissions produced and the amount removed from the atmosphere.

Optical communications Communication at a distance using light to carry information.

Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC) An integrated circuit that uses active and passive elements to produce, amplify, guide and manipulate photons for communications and sensing (emission and detection)

Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD) technologies that enable the control and delivery of electrical energy.

Photonics The science and technology of generating, controlling, transmitting and detecting photons, which are particles of light.

Radio Frequency (RF) The rate of oscillation of electromagnetic radio waves in the range of 3 kHz to 300 GHz, as well as the alternating currents carrying the radio signals. This is the frequency band that is used for wireless communication. 

Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) An active device with an active layer that produces photons.

Silicon carbide (SiC) A semiconductor composed of silicon (chemical symbol Si) and carbide (chemical symbol C). SiC's material characteristics make it highly advantageous for high power applications where high current, high temperatures, and high thermal conductivity are required.

Substrate Conformal Imprint Lithography (SCIL) A type of nano-imprint lithography that uses a flexible soft stamp to create patterns on the wafer.

Time of Flight (ToF) Sensors used for a range of applications, including robot navigation, vehicle monitoring, people counting, and object detection. ToF distance sensors use the time that it takes for photons to travel between two points to calculate the distance between the points.

Ultraviolet (UV) Refers to the range of electromagnetic
frequencies above the visible spectrum

Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) Type of semiconductor laser diode with laser beam emission perpendicular from the top surface, widely used as light sources in sensing applications.  

Wafer(s) Substrate or a thin slice of semiconductor material used in fabricating integrated circuits.